• Three Areas of Temperament – Dr Laura Hart

    Posted on August 4, 2018 by in Christian Degrees, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    The Three areas of temperament are Inclusion, Control and Affection.


    In a nutshell inclusion determines who is in or out of the relationship; control determines who maintains the power and makes decisions for the relationship; affection determines how emotionally close or distant the relationship.

    It does not include strong emotional attachment to another person as does affection. It concerns itself with prominence of the social encounter, whereas control concerns itself `with determining which of the participants in the interpersonal situation is dominant.

    Inclusion also determines intellectual energy and whether we relate better to tasks or people and how impulsive our behavior may be.

    Need #1

    This is the need to establish and maintain a satisfactory relationship with people in the area of surface relationships Association and socialization with people who come in and out of our daily lives. (Expressed need) 

    Need #2 

    This is the need of wanting people to approach us for association and socialization. This need is measured from a scale of wanting almost everyone to approach us for association to wanting almost no one to approach us for association (Wanted need)


    Control is the need for dominance within the interpersonal situation – not prominence. It is the power behind the throne. This need determines who maintains control and holds the power.  

    It is the decision-making process between people. Who is the leader who is the follower? It is the perception of feeling competent.

    Control also determines how well we make decisions, carry out responsibilities and how dependent or independent we are.

    It determines how strong willed we are.

    Need #1  

    Control is the need to establish and maintain a satisfactory relationship with people in regard to control and power. (Expressed need)

    Need #2

    This is the need within the temperament measured by wanting no one to control our behavior to wanting everyone to take control over our behavior. (Wanted need)


    Affection is unique within the temperament because it can only occur person to person.

    Unlike in the areas of Inclusion and Control where a group of people can be combined to be associated with or controlled as one, in the area of affection the relationship can only be person-to-person.

    It is the intimacy of the temperament, emotional closeness, confiding innermost desires and feelings, or a strong emotional tie. We are attempting to meet the need of feeling lovable.

    Need #1

    The need to establish and maintain a relationship with others in areas of love and affection (expressed need)

    Need #2

    The need within the temperament which is measured by whether one wants love and affection from everyone he meets or from very few (wanted need)

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